Question for today..#whats the dumbest lie your EX ever told you.?.


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Old-fashioned vaccine fights polio resurgence


A jab to protect children against polio that
fell out of favour in the 1960s should be given a
frontline role to help stamp out the disease,
doctors reported in The Lancet on Friday.
The injection can provide better and long-lasting
protection against the polio virus when used to
supplement oral vaccine, which replaced it in
most countries, they said.
Oral polio vaccine (OPV) protects individuals
against contracting the disease, but they can still
be infected by the virus.
It replicates in the gut and can then be passed to
others through faecal-contaminated water, thus
imperilling unvaccinated children.
Scientists at Imperial College London and the
Christian Medical College in Vellore, in southern
India’s Tamil Nadu state, investigated whether
the old-fashioned vaccine still had a part to play.
Their study involved 450 children from a poor
urban area of Vellore, all of whom had received
the oral vaccine as part of a standard inoculation
programme.
Half of the children were then given a dose of the
injected vaccine, which contains an inactivated
virus, and the other half given nothing.
A month later, the children were given a dose of
live oral vaccine, whose formula includes a tiny
amount of live polio virus, the goal being to safely
simulate re-infection.
A week later, their stools were tested to see if the
polio virus was present – specifically the two
strains of the virus, serotypes 1 and 3, which are
resisting eradication.
Among children who had received the injected
vaccine, there were 38 percent fewer who had
traces of serotype 1, and 70 percent fewer with
serotype 3, compared to those who did not get
the jab.
“Because IPV (injected polio vaccine) is injected
into the arm, rather than taken orally, it’s been
assumed it doesn’t provide much protection in
the gut and so would be less effective at
preventing faecal transmission than OPV,” said
Jacob John of the Christian Medical College.
“However, we found that where the children
already had a level of immunity due to OPV, the
injected vaccine actually boosted their gut
immunity,” he said in a press release.
He added: “In the 1960s there was extensive
rivalry between the scientists who developed the
two vaccines, with OPV eventually becoming the
most popular.
“But it looks as if the strongest immunity can be
achieved through a combination of the two.”
Also called the inactivated polio vaccine or the
“Salk vaccine,” after its inventor, Jonas Salk, who
developed it in 1955, the jab has long been
considered an astonishingly safe and effective
weapon against polio.
It is still used in dozens of countries, but in more
than 120 others, oral vaccine is the exclusive
choice, as it is cheaper, easier and quicker to
administer.
The new findings add support to guidelines issued
in February by the UN’s World Health
Organisation (WHO).
The agency recommended that all children
receive at least one dose of injected vaccine in
countries that solely use OPV, in order to broaden
the attack on all serotypes of the virus.
Polio, a crippling and potentially fatal disease that
mainly affects children under the age of five, has
taken a beating from a quarter-century
vaccination effort.
In 1988, the disease was endemic in 125
countries, and 350,000 cases were recorded
worldwide, according to the WHO.
Today, the virus is considered endemic in only
three countries – Afghanistan, Nigeria and
Pakistan, where the vaccination campaign has
been attacked by Islamists and tribal leaders.
The refugee crisis in Syria is considered another
potential source of infection, as the vaccination
programme there has been disrupted by war.
Health watchdogs are worried for unvaccinated
children in those countries and in neighbouring
countries where the vaccination guard may have
slipped.
In May, the WHO declared that polio had returned
as a “public health emergency” after three cases
of cross-border transmission of polio were
detected between January and April – from
Pakistan to Afghanistan, Syria to Iraq and
Cameroon to Equatorial Guinea.

Light drinking less healthy than thought


A glass or two of booze is good for your
heart, according to long-standing medical advice
that drinkers are often fond of citing. But,
according to a study published on Friday, this
cherished invitation to say “cheers” is well off the
mark.
Reducing even light consumption of alcohol will
not only improve your chances against coronary
heart disease, but also help you lose weight and
ease high blood pressure, it said.
Writing in the British Medical Journal, researchers
carried out an overview of 50 published studies
into the drinking habits and health of more than
260,000 people of European descent.
They looked especially at those with a key variant
of a gene called ADH1B.
Previous research has found that a single change
in the DNA code in this gene makes people less
sensitive to drink, and thus less at risk from
alcoholism.
The new study discovered that individuals with
the variant drank 17 per cent fewer units of
alcohol per week and were 78-per cent less likely
to binge-drink than those without it.
They also had a 10-per cent lower risk of coronary
heart disease and enjoyed lower systolic blood
pressure and body mass index (BMI).
“This suggests that reduction of alcohol
consumption, even for light to moderate drinkers,
is beneficial for cardiovascular health,” the study
contended.
Juan Casas, a professor of epidemiology at the
London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine,
who led the probe, said a decades-long belief in
health benefits from light-to-moderate drinking
may have been flawed.
“We now have evidence that some of these
studies suffer from limitations that may affect the
validity of their findings,” he said in a press
release.
“In our study, we saw a link between a reduced
consumption of alcohol and improved
cardiovascular health, regardless of whether the
individual was a light, moderate or heavy drinker.
“Assuming the association is causal, it appears
that even if you’re a light drinker, reducing your
alcohol consumption could be beneficial for your
heart.”
Independent commentators said the study was
interesting, not least because it challenged what
is now almost a dogma.
But, they cautioned, the debate was far from
over.
They noted the study was based only a statistical
approach – it was not designed to explore exactly
why those with the ADH1B variant were healthier.
There could be causes that apply only to them,
and not people without the variant, which makes
general advice on drinking a risky business.
“People with genes for alcohol intolerance may…
have other unmeasured behaviours or traits that
reduce heart disease,” Tim Spector, a professor of
genetic epidemiology at King’s College London,
told Britain’s Science Media Centre.
“A good example might be if they also had
different gut microbes which prevented heart
disease.”
Light-to-moderate drinking is generally
considered to be consumption of between 12 and
25 alcoholic units per week.
By way of comparison, a 330-millilitre (0.58 of a
pint) of lager with five per cent alcohol content
has 1.6 alcoholic units, and a small 125-ml (0.3 of
a pint) of wine with 12 per cent alcohol content
carries 1.5 units.

Test vaccine for dengue seen as promising


A prototype vaccine for dengue that two
years ago yielded lukewarm results has proved
more effective after wider trials and is a potential
arm against the disease, researchers said on
Friday.
Devised by the French pharmaceutical giant
Sanofi Pasteur, the so-called CYD-TDV vaccine
provided only 30 per cent protection against the
dangerous fever when first tested among children
in Thailand.
Widened to trials in four other Asian countries,
where disease conditions vary greatly, the
vaccine’s protection has been shown to be
significantly higher, at 56.5 per cent overall, the
scientists said.
The result falls short of the benchmark set by
classic vaccines such as those for polio and
measles, which can be more than 99 per cent
effective.
One reason for this is that CYD-TDV performed
poorly against one of the four strains of dengue
virus, the investigators reported in The Lancet.
These strains, or serotypes, circulate
simultaneously, which means a vaccine should
ideally protect against all of them.
Even so, the prototype was safe and well
tolerated and its shield, if only partial, means it
should be enlisted in the fight against dengue,
they argued.
“Our results suggest that vaccination with CYD-
TDV can reduce the incidence of symptomatic
dengue infection by more than half and
importantly reduced severe disease and
hospitalisations,” said Maria Rosario Capeding
from the Philippines’ Research Institute for
Tropical Medicine.
“This candidate vaccine has the potential to have
a significant impact on public health in view of
the high disease burden in endemic countries.”
Dengue is a potentially fatal fever, caused by a
virus transmitted by a mosquito when it takes its
blood meal, and is especially dangerous for
children.
The virus infects around 390 million people each
year, of whom about 96 million fall sick, according
to United Nations (UN) estimates.
It was once considered a disease of the tropics
that was endemic in only nine countries.
But globalisation, climate change and jet travel
are helping it to move into more temperate zones.
According to the World Health Organization
(WHO) cases of dengue have risen 30 fold over
the last 50 years, and more than half of the
world’s population are at risk of the disease.
The CYD-TDV vaccine was tested as a so-called
Phase IIb trial among just over 4,000 children in
rural Thailand, the results of which were reported
in September 2012.
The new figures are those of a Phase III trial –
normally the final step in the process to test new
drugs for safety and efficiency – carried out in
Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines and Vietnam,
as well as in Thailand.
More than 10,000 children aged two to 14 years
were enrolled. They were randomly assigned to
receive three injections of the vaccine or a
placebo over 12 months, and were followed for up
to two years.
During this period a total of 150 dengue cases
occurred, a majority of them in the placebo
group, demonstrating an overall effectiveness of
56.5 per cent.
But the protection varied according to the
serotype – more than 75 per cent against virus
types 3 and 4; 50 per cent against type 1; but
only 35 per cent against type 2.
On the plus side, those who had received the
vaccine were also far less likely to fall ill with a
severe form of the disease, dengue haemorrhagic
fever, which leads to half a million hospitalisations
each year.
In a commentary, Annelies Wilder-Smith, a
professor at Singapore’s Nanyang Technological
University, said a vaccine that halved annual
cases of dengue “would present a significant
public health benefit” but was not a magic bullet.
“For the moment, the CYD-TDV vaccine is the
best we have; however, with 56 per cent efficacy
it will never be a single solution,” Wilder-Smith
said.
Other strategies, including better approaches to
tackling mosquitoes that cause the problem,
would also have to be part of the campaign, she
said.
The children in the trial are being followed up for
another four years to see whether the vaccine’s
promise still holds up.

World Cup: Neymar backs Messi as Argentina, Germany prepare


Crocked Brazilian star Neymar
declared Thursday he wants Lionel Messi to lead
fierce rivals Argentina to victory over Germany as
the countdown to the World Cup final began.
Neymar, who missed Brazil’s 7-1 humiliation
against Germany through injury, told a press
conference he wanted Messi and Argentina to win
the title.
“Messi’s history in the sport is so important, he
has won a lot of trophies and I will be cheering for
him,” said Neymar, a team-mate of Messi’s at
Barcelona.
“He is a friend, he is my teammate and I wish him
luck.”
Neymar’s support of Messi, and by extension
Argentina, is unlikely to be shared by many of his
compatriots.
Brazilians are dreading the prospect of Argentina
claiming their third world title in the Maracana
Stadium in Rio de Janeiro on Sunday.
The South American nations are sworn footballing
enemies, and Argentina’s advance to the final
rubbed salt into Brazilian wounds still fresh from
Tuesday’s record defeat to Germany.
“The nightmare continues,” O Dia newspaper
commented glumly after Argentina booked their
place in the final by beating the Netherlands on
Wednesday.
As many as 100,000 Argentine fans are expected
to descend on Rio for the final, the climax of a
month-long footballing fiesta.
Germany meanwhile said they had quickly wiped
away the euphoria felt from their thrashing of
Brazil.
Germany’s veteran striker Miroslav Klose, who
became the World Cup’s all-time leading scorer
with the second goal against Brazil, said his team
had quickly forgotten the momentous win.
“We enjoyed the game against Brazil, but we
ticked it off after 24 hours,” Klose said. “In the
next game, we have to again play to the best of
our abilities.”
Germany assistant coach Hansi Flick said his team
had studied the way the Netherlands managed to
successfully contain Messi.
“We saw how the Dutch managed to keep Messi
out, but we too have a special plan for him —
although I won’t give that away,” said Flick.
Argentina’s players began plotting Germany’s
downfall as they returned to Belo Horizonte.
Striker Sergio Aguero said his teammates were
comfortable in the marginal underdog role,
insisting all the pressure would be on Germany.
“Germany were always the favourites, along with
Brazil, to win the World Cup,” the Manchester City
man said.
“They continue to be so now. We need to play our
own game and it suits us that all the pressure is
on them.”
Elsewhere Thursday, FIFA dismissed appeals by
Uruguay and Luis Suarez over the striker’s four-
month ban for biting.
Suarez was thrown out of the World Cup and
banned from all football activity for four months
after being found guilty of biting Italy’s Giorgio
Chiellini in a Group D game on June 24.
It was the third time Suarez has been found
guilty of biting an opponent in his career.
The 27-year-old initially denied any wrongdoing.
He later issued an apology admitting Chiellini had
“suffered the physical result of a bite.”
If FIFA’s ban is upheld, Suarez will not play
football again until late October.
A nine-match international ban also means he will
miss all or most of Uruguay’s campaign in the
2015 Copa America.
Suarez has been strongly linked with a move to
Barcelona, a deal that seemed to edge closer after
the Spanish giants completed the sale of Chile’s
World Cup star Alexis Sanchez to Arsenal.

Germany’s secret plan to stop Messi


– Germany have a secret
plan to shut Argentina superstar Lionel Messi out
of Sunday’s World Cup final at Rio de Janeiro’s
iconic Maracana Stadium.
Assistant coach Hansi Flick said Thursday there is
a “special plan” to cope with the four-time Ballon
d’Or winner but refused to give details.
Argentina’s forward and captain Lionel Messi
celebrates after scoring a goal during a Group F
football match between Argentina and Iran at the
Mineirao Stadium in Belo Horizonte during the
2014 FIFA World Cup in Brazil on June 21, 2014.
AFP PHOTO / PEDRO UGARTE
Messi had a relatively quiet match against the
Netherlands as Wednesday’s semi-final was
settled by penalties.
The 27-year-old was often greeted by two Oranje
shirts in Sao Paulo and the Germans are also
getting organized.
“We saw how the Dutch managed to keep Messi
out, but we too have a special plan for him —
although I won’t give that away,” said Flick.
“We’re looking forward to meeting a compact,
organised team and in Messi, they have one the
outstanding players of the tournament.
“We know plenty about Argentina, Germany has
to accept the role of favourites, but the final will
write it’s own script.”
Defender Benedikt Hoewedes said the Germany
defence will pay Messi the same close attention
Cristiano Ronaldo received in the 4-0 rout of
Portugal in the group stages.
“Messi is one of the best players in the world, but
just as I said before the Portugal game when we
faced Ronaldo, we have to defend as a team,”
said the left-back.
“We have to stifle his opportunities to score goal
and create dangerous situations.”
This is the sixth time Germany will meet
Argentina at the World Cup and the second time
in the final.
On their most recent meeting, Messi scored two
years ago when Argentina enjoyed a 3-1 win over
ten-man Germany in a Frankfurt friendly.
The Germans won the most recent World Cup
meetings. They routed a Diego Maradona-coached
Argentina 4-0 in Cape Town at South Africa 2010
after a quarter-final penalty shoot-out win in
Berlin four years earlier.
Germany lost the Mexico 1986 final 3-2 to
Argentina, then took revenge four years later by
winning the Italia 1990 final 1-0 when Argentina
finished with nine men in Rome.
Argentina legend Maradona played in both
matches, but Germany’s veteran striker Miroslav
Klose said neither match has any relevance now.
“You can’t really make comparisons, Maradona
was one player, but Messi is just as fantastic and
they are absolutely on par,” said Klose.
“We have to come up with a few surprises of our
own and I am just looking forward to an exciting
game, which will be marked by tactics and a bit
of trickery.”
Flick warned Germany fans not to expect
anything like Tuesday’s remarkable 7-1 semi-final
rout of Brazil, especially after Argentina’s penalty
shoot-out win against the Dutch.
“It’s going to be a completely different game to
the semi-final,” said Flick.
The Argentina-Netherlands semi-final “was a
tactical match, both teams neutralised each
other.
“The theme of the game was two excellent
defences and not every match can be as
spectacular as Germany-Brazil,” said Flick.

Baby thought cleared of HIV has virus again: US


A girl who was born HIV-positive
but was treated early and showed no signs of the
disease for years has seen her infection return, US
doctors said on Thursday.
The girl’s story had raised hopes that doctors may
have found a way to cure young children who are
born HIV-positive, simply by giving them strong
anti-retroviral drugs shortly after birth.
“Certainly, this is a disappointing turn of events
for this young child, the medical staff involved in
the child’s care and the HIV/AIDS research
community,” said Anthony Fauci, director of the
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious
Diseases.
Known widely as the “Mississippi baby,” she was
born to an HIV-positive mother in 2010 and was
given a potent dose of anti-retroviral medication
30 hours after birth.
She continued taking the medications until the
age of 18 months, when doctors lost track of her.
When she returned five months later, doctors
could find no sign of the virus, even though she
had not been taking her daily pills.
The child continued to stay off treatment and
showed no sign of the virus for more than two
years.
“Typically, when treatment is stopped, HIV levels
rebound within weeks, not years,” said Deborah
Persaud, professor of infectious diseases at the
John Hopkins Children’s Centre in Baltimore.
Persaud described the child’s response as
“unprecedented.”
Now age four, she was tested during a routine
clinical care visit earlier this month, and was
found to have detectable HIV levels in her blood.
She also had a decreased T-cell count and the
presence of HIV antibodies, signaling that her
body was fighting the infection and that HIV was
actively replicating again in her body.
The girl, whose identity has not been released, is
now being treated once again with anti-retroviral
medication and is doing well, Fauci said.
“The case of the Mississippi child indicates that
early anti-retroviral treatment in this HIV-infected
infant did not completely eliminate the reservoir
of HIV-infected cells that was established upon
infection but may have considerably limited its
development and averted the need for anti-
retroviral medication over a considerable period,”
said Fauci.
Researchers must now turn their attention to
understanding why and how the child went into
remission, with the hope of extending that time
period even further in future cases, he said.
The Mississippi baby’s case was detailed in the
New England Journal of Medicine in 2013.
Earlier this year, researchers reported a second
case of an infant, this time in California, who was
treated within hours of birth and whose HIV
remained undetectable nearly a year later.
However, that child was still taking anti-retroviral
drugs, and doctors said they would not consider
taking her off them until she reached the age of two.

Kefee for burial tomorrow


The remains of gospel singer, Kefee, who passed
away on June 13th 2014 after having been in a
coma for Fifteen days in the United States of
America would be laid to rest tomorrow, July
11th, at her hometown in Akpevweoghene
Educational Centre , Okpara Inland, Ethiope East,
Delta state.
The burial ceremony started in earnest today,
with a candlelight service of songs at Oba
Akenzua Cultural Center, Benin City, Edo state.
The home service and interment is billed to
tomorrow at Okpara Inland followed by another
event in the evening to celebrate Keefe’s life at
the Events Galleria, Sapele, Delta State.

MERS unlikely to spread in Asia: WHO


Asian countries should keep their guard
against the deadly Middle East respiratory virus,
although it is unlikely to spread to the region, a
World Health Organization expert said Thursday.
The Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS)
appears to be less infectious than originally
thought even though it has already killed 287
people, said Mark Jacobs, WHO’s director for
communicable diseases in the Western Pacific.
The relatives of those infected have not been
showing any signs of catching it, he added.
His comments come after the Philippines last
week urged its Muslim community to reconsider
plans to join the annual Hajj pilgrimage, which
takes place in Saudi Arabia, until the threat from
the virus has dissipated.
But Jacobs said the virus posed little regional
threat.
“A spread in our part of the world is small,”
Jacobs told reporters. “If the virus stays
unchanged, then I think that what we have been
seeing is what we will keep seeing.”
The WHO said 15 countries have reported MERS
cases, with the virus widely circulating in the
Arabian peninsula.
Outside the Middle East, both the Philippines and
neighbour Malaysia have both reported cases of
patients who apparently caught the virus after
travelling there.
These people had not infected others in their
countries, according to a WHO report.
“We haven’t seen big outbreaks in a community
or anything like that to suggest that it’s easy for
some in the general community to be infected,
(but) obviously we are keeping a close eye on
that and hope that would not be the case,”
Jacobs said.
While there was always a chance of the virus
spreading in health care facilities treating infected
patients, “the risk to almost everyone in the world
is extremely low”.
Jacobs advised Asians travelling to Saudi Arabia
for the Hajj in October to take precautions,
including proper hygiene and staying away from
people exhibiting symptoms like coughing.
The WHO has not issued any travel or trade
restrictions or entry screening related to MERS.

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