Halitosis , colloquially called bad breath , is a
symptom in which a noticeably unpleasant odor is
present on the exhaled breath. Concern about
halitosis is estimated to be the third most
frequent reason for people to seek dental care,
following tooth decay and periodontal disease
(gum disease), and about 20% of the general
population are reported to suffer from it to some

Halitosis is caused due to breakdown of food
particles, saliva, blood or cells by bacteria. Most
of the cases are caused by poor oral hygiene .
Dental caries, mouth ulcers and mouth cancer are
other oral causes of halitosis. Halitosis is also
frequently caused by nose and throat infections.
Other conditions like lung infections, fever, liver
and kidney failure can also result in halitosis.
Improving oral hygiene with regular brushing of
teeth, cleaning of tongue and using mouthwashes
can help to improve halitosis. In some cases,
treatment of the underlying cause of halitosis
results in a cure.
‘More than 90 million people suffer from chronic
halitosis or bad breath. In most cases it
originates from the gums and tongue.’ (Source:
Some patients suffer from halitephobia. These
patients have the delusion that they suffer from
bad breath when it is not actually present. They
get obsessed with cleaning their mouth repeatedly
with mouthwashes and keep using chewing gums
and mints. They also try to keep their distance
from others and avoid social interactions. These
patients require psychological support.Halitosis

Very rarely, halitosis can be one of many
symptoms of a serious underlying medical
condition such as liver failure , but in the vast
majority of cases the cause is minor and can
often be reduced by adjustments to oral hygiene ,
including brushing or gently scraping the back of
the tongue and improving the health of the gums,
e.g. by using dental floss . Occasionally however,
especially if the origin of the odor is not in the
mouth, halitosis can be more difficult to diagnose
and to manage successfully. Bad breath is a
social taboo and, as a result, perceived or
genuine halitosis can sometimes trigger social
anxiety and depression.

Causes and Diagnosis
Poor oral hygiene is the most common cause of
halitosis. However, a person may suffer from
halitosis due to other conditions as well.
Halitosis or bad breath is caused by diseases
affecting the mouth and sometimes nose or
throat. Bacteria present in the mouth act on food
particles, saliva, cells or blood in the mouth to
produce halitosis. Some causes of halitosis
Poor oral hygiene : Poor oral hygiene leads to
accumulation of food and plaque in the mouth.
These result in inflammation of gums called
gingivitis and of the tissues surrounding the teeth
called peridontitis. Both gingivitis and peridontitis
can cause halitosis. A particular type of gingivitis
called Vincent’s disease or trench mouth causes
very bad halitosis. Besides, dental caries also
lead to oral malodor.
Dry mouth or Xerostomia : Dryness of mouth
could occur in various conditions like Sjogren’s
Mouth ulcers: Bacteria can grow on the tissue
debris and blood of mouth ulcers and cause bad
Dentures : Dentures may increase tongue coat
deposits and lead to halitosis.
Morning halitosis: Halitosis that occurs when one
wakes up from sleep is called “morning
halitosis.” This could occur due to a nose or
throat infection or due to hot, dry surroundings.
Food and addictions : Foods like garlic, onions and
spices result in transient bad breath. Tobacco,
alcohol and betel nut could also cause halitosis.
Respiratory tract infections: Infections of the
upper respiratory tract like rhinitis, sinusitis and
tonsillitis as well as lung infections like
bronchiectasis can result in halitosis.
Cancer: Cancer of the mouth as well as of the
lungs can cause in bad breath.
Gastro-esophageal reflux disease : In
gastroesophageal reflux disease, the stomach
contents move back into the esophagus and
damage the lining of the esophagus. Bacteria
grow on these damaged portions and cause
Other conditions : Conditions like fever, diabetes,
liver and kidney failure result in halitosis.
Fish Odor Syndrome : Fish Odor Syndrome or
Trimethylaminuria is a genetic disorder where the
patient’s mouth and body smell of rotten fish.
Halitosis is diagnosed using the organoleptic
procedure. Improving oral hygiene often helps to
cure the condition.
Halitosis is diagnosed by the presence of malodor
or bad breath. Smelling the air from the mouth
and nose separately and comparing the intensity
of the two odors using the organoleptic procedure
helps to diagnose the origin of the problem. Odor
from both the mouth as well as the nose of
similar intensity indicates that the problem is not
a local one.
Though some tests like gas chromatography (GC)
and sulphide monitoring are available to test
what the malodor is due to, they are expensive
and usually not practical to be carried out.


World Cup: Colombia’s Santos calls for Pekerman to stay as coach

Colombia’s President Juan Manuel Santos
gestures next to his wife Maria Clemencia during
the team’s 2014 World Cup Group C soccer
match against Ivory Coast at the Brasilia national
stadium in Brasilia on June 19, 2014.
Colombian President Juan Manuel
Santos late Saturday thanked his country’s
football team for their strong World Cup
performance, and urged sports officials to keep
the side’s Argentine coach.
In his first public presentation since winning re-
election on June 15, an emotional Santos, wearing
the team’s yellow jersey, thanked the players and
coach Jose Pekerman for taking Colombia to the
tournament’s quarter-finals for the first time.
“Many thanks to our players who gave it all in
the field, with honor, dignity and clean play,”
Santos said. “What pride! We are so proud of our
Colombian national team.”
Colombia was eliminated from the tournament
when they lost to Brazil 2-1 at the Estadio
Castelao in Fortaleza on Friday.
Santos, who flew to Brazil for the match, asked
the Federacion Colombiana de Futbol to keep
Pekerman on the job.
Pekerman has successfully guided the team “with
class and professionalism,” Santos said.
The 64-year-old Pekerman, a former taxi driver
and club football player, was Argentina’s coach in
the 2006 World Cup in Germany.
Pekerman’s contract with Colombia ends in
August, and he has said nothing about life after
the World Cup.
In Friday’s tough and physical match, the main
villan was Colombia’s Juan Zuniga for a violent
foul that fractured Brazilian superstar Neymar’s
Neymar will miss the rest of the tournament, and
FIFA said that it may take disciplinary action
against the 28-year-old Colombian defender.
Zuniga denied that he intentionally sought to
injure Neymar.
Santos emphasised “unity” and “working together
for the country” in his televised speech.
The Santos administration is engaged in peace
talks aimed at ending the country’s five decade
war with the Revolutionary Armed Forces of
Colombia (FARC) rebels.
The football team, known as Los Cafeteros, will
be welcomed home with a parade and open-air
rally in Bogota on Sunday.

MTN Who Wants To Be A Millionaire: 10 years of touching lives!

Nigeria’s most popular TV game show, Who
Wants to be a Millionaire (WWTBAM) was
introduced in 2004. Anchored by Frank Edoho,
this programme has continued to keep millions of
people glued to their TV sets every week.
What sets this programme apart from others is
the fact that it celebrates & richly rewards
contestants for their knowledge of current affairs.
It is also one of the very few high-profile TV
programmes on national television that appeals to
every segment of the population – children, youth,
adults and even the aged. Continue…4
GM Consumer Marketing, MTN, Mr Kola Oyeyemi
(left) and Ultima Limited’s Mr Tunji Adebakin
(right), presenting a cheque of N10million to
Aroma Ufodike, the only N10million winner so far,
in the ten-year history of WWTBAM in Nigeria.
As the programme celebrates its tenth
anniversary this year, all stakeholders –such as
the sponsors, (MTN), the producers (Ultima
Studios), the contestants as well as the audience
– can all look back with a sense of pride and
fulfilment of what the programme has achieved.
The programme has changed the lives of over 167
Nigerians across all geo-political zones by
making them instant millionaires.
While we look forward to another 10 years of Who
Wants to Be A Millionaire, MTN remains
committed to sponsoring this award-winning
show and providing much needed excitement,
entertainment, education and empowerment to
Pa Kasimu Yero (Uncle Gaga of the “Cockrow at
Dawn” fame), flanked by ace comedian, Kofi and
famous On-Air-Personality(OAP), Joseph
Benjamin, coasting home to a N2million win in
November 2012
5Sammy Abraham; 58-year old teacher and school
proprietor’s sojourn to the WWTBAM hot seat in
March 2013, made him N5m richer.
6Mrs Winifred Karierien, beaming with smiles as
she won N5million on the hot seat in April 20127
Show host, Frank Edoho handing over a cheque
to Chief Lere Paimo, while Nollywood actress,
Gloria Young (2 nd left) watches with admiration.8Popular comedian, Seyi Law (left) teaming up
with one-time N5million winner, Mrs Winifred
Karieren (right) to play for “NigerWives”, an NGO,
represented by Mrs Jean Obi (centre), during one
of the WWTBAM tenth anniversary special
episodes9; N10million winner, Aroma Ufodike (right),
teaming up with veteran comic act, Chika Okpala
aka Chief Zebrudaya (left) to play for the
Committee Encouraging Corporate Philanthropy
(CECP), represented by Dr. Mrs. Abia Nzelu,
during one of the WWTBAM tenth anniversary
special episodes, which was held recently.11
Quiz Master , Nnaemeka Ubaekwena (left) and
Nollywood actress, Ngozi Nwosu (right) assisting
veteran Yoruba actor, Mr Kayode Odumosu, aka
Pa Kasumu, to a N500,000 win, during one of the
recently held WWTBAM tenth anniversary special
Nollywood actress, Kate Henshaw (left) and
popular musician, Teemac Omatshola (right)
celebrate, as Pa Taiwo Akinkunmi (middle), the
designer of Nigeria’s national flag, wins two
million naira; during one of the past episodes of
Who Deserves To Be A Millionaire episodes12Ace comedian, Julius Agwu, assisting former
Nigerian international goal keeper, Peter Fregene,
to a N500,000 win, during one of the past editions
of Who Deserves To Be A Millionaire.13TWO can play the game! Tunde (left)and Wunmi
Obe (right), assisting paralympian , Gbolahan
(centre) to a N500,000 win during one of the past
episodes of “ Who Deserves To Be A Millionaire”1415
Oyo State First Lady, Mrs Florence Ajimobi,
addressing the audience during one of the tenth
anniversary special episodes, which took place
recently164_2Lagos State First Lady, Dame Emmanuella
Abimbola Fashola, exchanging pleasantries with
veteran Yoruba actor, Mr Kayode Odumosu, aka
Pa Kasumu, while Quiz Master, Nnaemeka
Ubaekwena looks on, during one of the recently
held WWTBAM tenth anniversary special episodes5
Oyo State First Lady, Mrs Florence Ajimobi,
addressing the audience during one of the tenth
anniversary special episodes, which took place
So… Who wants to be next guest on the Hot

Did she or did she not get booty implant?


Some media sources are claiming that Chris
Brown’s girlfriend Karrueche Tran is the latest
celeb to get butt implants. The pic on the left and
centre shows Karrueche’s butt before. The one on
the right is a pic Chris Brown shared on his
instagram page yesterday. Chris has shared two
butt pictures of Kae in the last two weeks, like he
wants his fans to notice something. And they
have, asking him how much he paid to get her a
new butt. See the other pic Chris Tweeted two
weeks ago after the cut.Untitled
Do you think she Got some work?

Healthy appetite for medical gadgets

A quiet revolution is altering the medical devices previously derided for being ugly or hard to use. Rhiannon Williams welcomes the new health heroes Charlieipad_2964721b

It’s difficult to read anything about the latest technology without mention of the term health. Opening any smartphone’s app store presents you with thousands of fitness and well-being apps, while we’re confronted with countless gadgets for tracking, motivating and whipping us into shape.

Although started by a host of small firms, it’s a trend that hasn’t escaped the attention of some of the world’s largest companies – Apple and Google are both preparing to release their respective health platforms HealthKit and Google Fit in the near future, acting as databases for collating health and fitness data from third party apps.

Amid the hype, however, an array of distinctly old-fashioned medical devices have quietly undergone a radical hi-tech makeover, designed to not only look better than ever before, but to slot as conveniently as possible into our busy lives.

Qardio, which hopes to integrate with HealthKit, produces wireless blood pressure monitors designed to connect to smartphones and tablets, enabling the effortless sharing of data with friends, family and eventually doctors.

Its sleek QardioArm monitor consists of a slim battery pack attached to a cuff, and was born from cardiologists’ complaints that no available blood pressure monitor was user-friendly. With patients required to measure their own pressure up to three times a day, transporting around cumbersome and unattractive machines before phoning the doctor with the results several times a week, the company decided to make their devices as aesthetically-pleasing as possible while maintaining functionality.

Julius Agwu Takes His Comedy To The Skies

Leaving Nigeria for Brazil, Right inside the plane
just before takeoff, Super eagle’s supporters
couldn’t stop laughing as the professional “RIB
CRACKER” Julius “The Genius” Agwu began
walking around, dissing and chatting with each
individual on the plane, but as you know this is a
rib cracking chat.One of which he said “I am
quitting comedy for football” when he heard Seun
Adamu talk about the substantial amount the
players will be paid for winning each match.
Just when Nigerian supporters thought they were
free from the “genius”, one of Nigerians highly
rated comic Actor Charles Awurum picked it from
where Julius stopped and it was a non-stop
laugh experience for everyone on the plane.
Welcome back.. Lol

Shakira To Headline At The World Cup Closing Ceremony

shakira-target-poster-602x457Her boo might no longer be in the World Cup, but
global pop star Shakira is till very much in the
football competition. Shakira will perform before
the World Cup final in Rio de Janeiro on 13 July,
headlining a closing ceremony that includes guitar
virtuoso Carlos Santana and rapper Wyclef Jean.
This will be the third time Shakira will be making
a World Cup appearance. She will sing La la la
(Brazil 2014) with Brazilian star Carlinhos Brown.
FIFA said in a statement, Santana, Wyclef and
Brazilian singer Alexandre Pires would perform
the tournament’s official anthem, Dar Um Jeito at
the legendary Maracana Stadium.
“I’m thrilled to be performing my song La la la
(Brazil 2014) at the 2014 FIFA World Cup closing
ceremony,” said Shakira. “I have an intricate
relationship with football for obvious reasons, and
I truly understand what the World Cup means to
so many people, myself included.”

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